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Asperger Syndrome

What Is Asperger Syndrome?

Asperger syndrome (AS) is a type of autism. Autism affects how a person interprets language, communicates, and socializes.

AS used to be considered its own condition, with its own diagnosis, but kids who show signs of AS are diagnosed with autism and are considered "on the autism spectrum." The term refers to a wide range of developmental disabilities. These disabilities can appear in different combinations with varying degrees of severity. General terms such as "low-functioning," "high-functioning," "autistic tendencies," "pervasive developmental disorder," and others are often used to describe children whose behaviors fall on the autism spectrum.

Kids with AS are generally considered to be on the "high-functioning" end of the autism spectrum. Boys are three to four times more likely than girls to have AS.

What Happens in AS?

AS is characterized by poor social interactions, obsessions, odd speech patterns, few facial expressions, and other peculiar mannerisms.

Often, kids with AS have trouble reading the body language of others. They might engage in obsessive routines and show an unusual sensitivity to sensory stimuli — for example, they may be bothered by a light that no one else notices; they may cover their ears to block out sounds in the environment; or they might prefer to wear clothing made of a certain material.

Overall, kids and teens with AS can function in everyday life, but tend to be somewhat socially immature, relate better to adults than peers, and may be seen by others as odd or eccentric.

Other characteristics of AS can include motor delays, clumsiness, limited interests, and peculiar preoccupations. Adults with AS have trouble showing empathy for others, and social interactions continue to be difficult.

Experts say that AS follows a continuous course and usually lasts a lifetime. However, symptoms might increase and decrease over time, and early intervention services can be helpful.

What Are the Signs & Symptoms of Asperger Syndrome?

Because the signs of AS can be similar to those of other behavioral problems, it's best to let a doctor or other health professional evaluate a child's symptoms. Many kids are diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) before a diagnosis of AS is made later.

A child with AS might have these signs and symptoms:

  • inappropriate or minimal social interactions
  • conversations that almost always revolve around self rather than others
  • "scripted," "robotic," or repetitive speech
  • a lack of "common sense"
  • problems with reading, math, or writing skills
  • obsession with complex topics, such as patterns or music
  • average to below-average nonverbal cognitive abilities, though verbal cognitive abilities are usually average to above-average
  • awkward movements
  • odd behaviors or mannerisms

It's important to note that, unlike kids with autism, those with AS might show no delays in language development; they usually have good grammar skills and an advanced vocabulary at an early age. However, many do have a language disorder — for instance, a child might be very literal and have trouble using language in a social context.

Often there are no obvious delays in cognitive development. Kids with AS can have problems with attention span and organization, or skills that seem well developed in some areas and lacking in others, but they usually have average and sometimes above-average intelligence.

What Causes Asperger Syndrome?

Researchers and mental health experts are still investigating the causes of autism and AS. Brain abnormalities are thought to be one possible cause of AS, because structural and functional differences have been seen with advanced brain imaging.

Genetics might play a role, and research indicates that some cases of AS may be associated with other mental health problems such as depression and bipolar disorder.

AS is not caused by emotional deprivation or the way a child was brought up. Because some behaviors seen in AS may be thought of as intentionally rude by others, many people wrongly assume that AS is the result of bad parenting — it isn't. It's a neurobiological disorder whose causes are not yet fully understood.

How Is Asperger Syndrome Diagnosed?

Asperger syndrome can be hard to diagnose. Children with AS function well in most aspects of life, so it can be easy to consider their strange behaviors to just being "different."

Early intervention involving educational and social training, done while a child's brain is still developing, is very important for kids with AS.

If your child shows some of the symptoms and behaviors that are typical of AS, get help from your doctor. He or she can refer you to a mental health professional or other specialist for further evaluation.

A specialist will do a thorough "psychosocial" evaluation of your child. This includes a careful history of when symptoms were first noticed, the development of motor skills and language patterns, and other aspects of personality and behavior (including favorite activities, unusual habits, preoccupations, etc.).

Particular focus is placed on social development, including past and present problems in social interaction and development of friendships. A psychological evaluation and assessment of communication skills usually are done to see which might be lacking.

How Is Asperger Syndrome Treated?

There's no cure for the disorder — kids with AS become adults with AS. But many lead full and happy lives, and their chances of doing so are helped by appropriate education, support, and resources.

AS behaviors and problems can differ widely from child to child, so there isn't a "typical" or prescribed treatment. Depending on their strengths and weaknesses, kids may benefit from:

  • parent education and training
  • specialized educational interventions
  • social skills training
  • language therapy
  • for younger kids, sensory integration training. This usually involves occupational therapy, in which a child is desensitized to stimuli he or she is overly sensitive to.
  • psychotherapy or behavioral/cognitive therapy for older kids
  • medicines

It's important to involve all caregivers. For instance, every health professional caring for your child should know what the others are doing. And teachers, babysitters, other family members, close friends, and anyone else who cares for your child should be involved.

Finding the right program is key, as is getting help for your child early. Kids with AS can and do have great gains with the proper treatment and education.

How Can I Help My Child?

AS brings challenges for kids and their parents, but you can help your child adjust and offer support in many ways:

  • Look into educational or training programs for parents. You're your child's first teacher and you'll continue to be the cornerstone in supporting his or her development.
  • Teach your child self-help skills. Learning these skills helps kids achieve maximum independence.
  • Because it's not always obvious that a child has AS, tell others that your child has special needs. As a parent, you may have to be an educator when dealing with teachers, medical personnel, and other caregivers.
  • Find a treatment or intervention program tailored to your child's specific issues or areas of "deficiency." The Autism Society of America (ASA) recommends talking with the program's director to be sure that it can meet your child's needs.
  • Choose special programs or treatments that focus on long-term goals and are suited to your child's developmental level.
  • Remember that your child is part of a family, and that his or her needs should be balanced with those of other family members.
  • Get support for yourself and other family members. You can't help your child if you're not meeting your own emotional and physical needs. Your community may have support groups at a local hospital or mental health center. Government-sponsored services and other programs vary from state to state.

Looking Ahead

Some kids with AS go to mainstream schools where their progress depends on the support and encouragement of parents, caregivers, teachers, and classmates. Others go to special schools for kids with autism or learning disabilities.

Many people with AS manage well in most aspects of life, so the condition does not have to prevent your child from succeeding academically and socially.

You may feel overwhelmed and discouraged if your child is diagnosed with AS. Remember that the treatment team is there to support and encourage your child and your whole family.

Date reviewed: September 2016